Python

50+ Python Interview Questions You Must Prepare in 2020

50+ Python Interview Questions You Must Prepare in 2020 

1. What are the applications of Python?

Python is used in various software domains some application areas are given below.

  • Web and Internet Development
  • Games
  • Scientific and computational applications
  • Language development
  • Image processing and graphic design applications
  • Enterprise and business applications development
  • Operating systems
  • GUI based desktop applications

Python provides various web frameworks to develop web applications. The popular python web frameworks are Django, Pyramid, Flask.

Python’s standard library supports for E-mail processing, FTP, IMAP, and other Internet protocols.

Python’s SciPy and NumPy helps in scientific and computational application development.

Python’s Tkinter library supports to create a desktop based GUI applications.

2. Explain Python Functions?

A function is a section of the program or a block of code that is written once and can be executed whenever required in the program. A function is a block of self-contained statements which has a valid name, parameters list, and body. Functions make programming more functional and modular to perform modular tasks. Python provides several built-in functions to complete tasks and also allows a user to create new functions as well.

There are two types of functions:

  • Built-In Functions: copy(), len(), count() are the some built-in functions.
  • User-defined Functions: Functions which are defined by a user known as user-defined functions.

Example: A general syntax of user defined function is given below.

  1. def function_name(parameters list):  
  2.     #— statements—  
  3.     return a_value  

3. What is zip() function in Python?

Python zip() function returns a zip object, which maps a similar index of multiple containers. It takes an iterable, convert into iterator and aggregates the elements based on iterables passed. It returns an iterator of tuples.

Signature

  1. zip(iterator1, iterator2, iterator3 …)    

Parameters

iterator1, iterator2, iterator3: These are iterator objects that are joined together.

Return

It returns an iterator from two or more iterators.

4. What is the difference between remove() function and del statement?

You can use the remove() function to delete a specific object in the list.

If you want to delete an object at a specific location (index) in the list, you can either use del or pop.

Note: You don’t need to import any extra module to use these functions for removing an element from the list.

We cannot use these methods with a tuple because the tuple is different from the list.

The Python provides libraries/modules that enable you to manipulate text files and binary files on the file system. It helps to create files, update their contents, copy, and delete files. The libraries are os, os.path, and shutil.

Here, os and os.path – modules include a function for accessing the filesystem

while shutil – module enables you to copy and delete the files.

6. How to create a Unicode string in Python?

In Python 3, the old Unicode type has replaced by “str” type, and the string is treated as Unicode by default. We can make a string in Unicode by using art.title.encode(“utf-8”) function.

7. What are the rules for a local and global variable in Python?

In Python, variables that are only referenced inside a function are called implicitly global. If a variable is assigned a new value anywhere within the function’s body, it’s assumed to be a local. If a variable is ever assigned a new value inside the function, the variable is implicitly local, and we need to declare it as ‘global’ explicitly. To make a variable globally, we need to declare it by using global keyword. Local variables are accessible within local body only. Global variables are accessible anywhere in the program, and any function can access and modify its value.

8. What is the namespace in Python?

The namespace is a fundamental idea to structure and organize the code that is more useful in large projects. However, it could be a bit difficult concept to grasp if you’re new to programming. Hence, we tried to make namespaces just a little easier to understand.

A namespace is defined as a simple system to control the names in a program. It ensures that names are unique and won’t lead to any conflict.

Also, Python implements namespaces in the form of dictionaries and maintains name-to-object mapping where names act as keys and the objects as values.

9. What is a generator in Python?

In Python, the generator is a way that specifies how to implement iterators. It is a normal function except that it yields expression in the function. It does not implements __itr__ and next() method and reduce other overheads as well.

If a function contains at least a yield statement, it becomes a generator. The yield keyword pauses the current execution by saving its states and then resume from the same when required.

10. What is a negative index in Python?

Python sequences are accessible using an index in positive and negative numbers. For example, 0 is the first positive index, 1 is the second positive index and so on. For negative indexes -1 is the last negative index, -2 is the second last negative index and so on.

Index traverses from left to right and increases by one until end of the list.

Negative index traverse from right to left and iterate one by one till the start of the list. A negative index is used to traverse the elements into reverse order.

11. What is the usage of help() and dir() function in Python?

Help() and dir() both functions are accessible from the Python interpreter and used for viewing a consolidated dump of built-in functions.

Help() function: The help() function is used to display the documentation string and also facilitates us to see the help related to modules, keywords, and attributes.

Dir() function: The dir() function is used to display the defined symbols.

12. How Python does Compile-time and Run-time code checking?

In Python, some amount of coding is done at compile time, but most of the checking such as type, name, etc. are postponed until code execution. Consequently, if the Python code references a user-defined function that does not exist, the code will compile successfully. The Python code will fail only with an exception when the code execution path does not exist.

13. What is lambda function in Python?

The anonymous function in python is a function that is defined without a name. The normal functions are defined using a keyword “def”, whereas, the anonymous functions are defined using the lambda function. The anonymous functions are also called as lambda functions.

14. How to find bugs or perform static analysis in a Python application?

  • You can use PyChecker, which is a static analyzer. It identifies the bugs in Python project and also reveals the style and complexity related bugs.
  • Another tool is Pylint, which checks whether the Python module satisfies the coding standard.

15. What is slicing in Python?

Slicing is a string operation for extracting a part of the string, or some part of a list. In Python, a string (say text) begins at index 0, and the nth character stores at position text[n-1]. Python can also perform reverse indexing, i.e., in the backward direction, with the help of negative numbers. In Python, the slice() is also a constructor function which generates a slice object. The result is a set of indices mentioned by range(start, stop, step). The slice() method allows three parameters. 1. start – starting number for the slicing to begin. 2. stop – the number which indicates the end of slicing. 3. step – the value to increment after each index (default = 1).

16. Is a string immutable or mutable in Python?

Python strings are indeed immutable.

Let’s take an example. We have an “str” variable holding a string value. We can’t mutate the container, i.e., the string, but can modify what it contains that means the value of the variable.

17. How many basic types of functions are available in Python?

Python gives us two basic types of functions.

1. Built-in, and

2. User-defined.

The built-in functions happen to be part of the Python language. Some of these are print(), dir(), len(), and abs() etc.

18. What is the return keyword used for in Python?

The purpose of a function is to receive the inputs and return some output.

The return is a Python statement which we can use in a function for sending a value back to its caller.

19. What is the return value of the trunc() function?

The Python trunc() function performs a mathematical operation to remove the decimal values from a particular expression and provides an integer value as its output.

20. When should you use the “break” in Python?

Python provides a break statement to exit from a loop. Whenever the break hits in the code, the control of the program immediately exits from the body of the loop.

The break statement in a nested loop causes the control to exit from the inner iterative block.

22. What is isalpha() in Python?

Python provides this built-in isalpha() function for the string handling purpose.

It returns True if all characters in the string are of alphabet type, else it returns False.

23. What are Errors and Exceptions in Python programs?

Errors are coding issues in a program which may cause it to exit abnormally.

On the contrary, exceptions happen due to the occurrence of an external event which interrupts the normal flow of the program.

24. What are Python Iterators?

Iterators in Python are array-like objects which allow moving on the next element. We use them in traversing a loop, for example, in a “for” loop.

Python library has a no. of iterators. For example, a list is also an iterator and we can start a for loop over it.

25. What does the “self” keyword do?

The self is a Python keyword which represents a variable that holds the instance of an object.

In almost, all the object-oriented languages, it is passed to the methods as a hidden parameter.

26. What is the purpose of docstrings in Python?

In Python, the docstring is what we call as the docstrings. It sets a process of recording Python functions, modules, and classes.

27. How are arguments passed by value or by reference?

Everything in Python is an object and all variables hold references to the objects. The references values are according to the functions; as a result you cannot change the value of the references. However, you can change the objects if it is mutable.

28. What is namespace in Python?

In Python, every name introduced has a place where it lives and can be hooked for. This is known as namespace. It is like a box where a variable name is mapped to the object placed. Whenever the variable is searched out, this box will be searched, to get corresponding object.

29. What is pass in Python?

Pass means, no-operation Python statement, or in other words it is a place holder in compound statement, where there should be a blank left and nothing has to be written there.

30. What is negative index in Python?

Python sequences can be index in positive and negative numbers. For positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so forth. For negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so forth.

31. What is module and package in Python?

In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.

The folder of Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.

32. Explain how to delete a file in Python?

By using a command os.remove (filename) or os.unlink(filename)

33. Mention the use of the split function in Python?

The use of the split function in Python is that it breaks a string into shorter strings using the defined separator. It gives a list of all words present in the string.

34. Explain what is the common way for the Flask script to work?

The common way for the flask script to work is

Either it should be the import path for your application

Or the path to a Python file

35. What type of language is python? Programming or scripting?

Python is capable of scripting, but in general sense, it is considered as a general-purpose programming language. To know more about Scripting, you can refer to the Python Scripting Tutorial.

36. What are python modules? Name some commonly used built-in modules in Python?

Python modules are files containing Python code. This code can either be functions classes or variables. A Python module is a .py file containing executable code.

Some of the commonly used built-in modules are:

os

sys

math

random

data time

JSON

37. Is indentation required in python?

Indentation is necessary for Python. It specifies a block of code. All code within loops, classes, functions, etc is specified within an indented block. It is usually done using four space characters. If your code is not indented necessarily, it will not execute accurately and will throw errors as well.

38. What is self in Python?

Self is an instance or an object of a class. In Python, this is explicitly included as the first parameter. However, this is not the case in Java where it’s optional.  It helps to differentiate between the methods and attributes of a class with local variables.

The self variable in the init method refers to the newly created object while in other methods, it refers to the object whose method was called. 

39. What is pickling and unpickling?

Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.

40. How will you capitalize the first letter of string?

In Python, the capitalize() method capitalizes the first letter of a string. If the string already consists of a capital letter at the beginning, then, it returns the original string.

 41. How to comment multiple lines in python?

Multi-line comments appear in more than one line. All the lines to be commented are to be prefixed by a #. You can also a very good shortcut method to comment multiple lines. All you need to do is hold the ctrl key and left click in every place wherever you want to include a # character and type a # just once. This will comment all the lines where you introduced your cursor.

42. What is the usage of help() and dir() function in Python?

Help() and dir() both functions are accessible from the Python interpreter and used for viewing a consolidated dump of built-in functions. 

  1. Help() function: The help() function is used to display the documentation string and also facilitates you to see the help related to modules, keywords, attributes, etc.
  2. Dir() function: The dir() function is used to display the defined symbols.

43. What are Python packages?

Python packages are namespaces containing multiple modules.

44. Does Python have OOps concepts?

Python is an object-oriented programming language. This means that any program can be solved in python by creating an object model. However, Python can be treated as procedural as well as structural language.

45. What does len() do?

It is used to determine the length of a string, a list, an array, etc.

Example:

1
2
stg=’ABCD’
len(stg)

46. Whenever Python exits, why isn’t all the memory de-allocated?

  1. Whenever Python exits, especially those Python modules which are having circular references to other objects or the objects that are referenced from the global namespaces are not always de-allocated or freed.
  2. It is impossible to de-allocate those portions of memory that are reserved by the C library.
  3. On exit, because of having its own efficient clean up mechanism, Python would try to de-allocate/destroy every other object.

47. What is the purpose of is, not and in operators?

Operators are special functions. They take one or more values and produce a corresponding result.

is: returns true when 2 operands are true  (Example: “a” is ‘a’)

not: returns the inverse of the boolean value

in: checks if some element is present in some sequence

48. How will you capitalize the first letter of string?

In Python, the capitalize() method capitalizes the first letter of a string. If the string already consists of a capital letter at the beginning, then, it returns the original string.

49. What is the purpose of the PYTHONPATH environment variable?

PYTHONPATH – It has a role similar to PATH. This variable tells the Python interpreter where to locate the module files imported into a program. It should include the Python source library directory and the directories containing Python source code. PYTHONPATH is sometimes preset by the Python installer.

50. What are Python’s dictionaries?

Python’s dictionaries are a kind of hash table type. They work like associative arrays or hashes found in Perl and consist of key-value pairs. A dictionary key can be almost any Python type, but are usually numbers or strings. Values, on the other hand, can be any arbitrary Python object.

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